Floridata Article

The Calla Lilies are Blooming Again

Calla lilies picked for a bouquet. Photo by Ginny Stibolt.
Calla lilies picked for a bouquet.

As I've roamed around Florida this past year giving talks and participating in garden fests to promote my book, Sustainable Gardening for Florida, I have related the story of my complete failure at growing tulips here in northeastern Florida.

Longtime Florida gardeners laugh knowingly at my tulip blunder: many of them have been through the same process of working out what works here in Florida and what does not. You can't necessarily trust big box stores or nurseries to offer you plants that will actually work here. I bought those original tulips at a big box store and followed the instructions on the packaging for Florida, but of the 48 bulbs I planted, only one leaf sprouted.

Don't cry for me though; I have learned to love the place where I am and have found some wonderful bulbs that I can plant here that would have been difficult, if not impossible back in Maryland or New England.

The calla lilies are in bloom again. Photo by Ginny Stibolt
Calla Lily

Calla Lilies

Ever since I first heard Katherine Hepburn say, "The calla lilies are in bloom again." in the movie "Stage Door," I've wanted to have some in my garden. Here in north Florida, our climate is perfect for these beauties. Even their spotted, arrow-shaped leaves are attractive.

Calla lilies are not true lilies, which have six tepals (Tepals are petals and sepals which are the same size and color.) as we discussed in A Plant by Any Common Name, but are part of the Araceae plant family also known as Arums. The flowers are grouped in an inflorescence mounted on a thick stalk, which is underlain or surrounded by a spathe. The spathe, a modified leaf, can be relatively flat as in the peace lily ( Spathiphyllum spp.) or it can wrap around the inflorescence like the calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica). The spathe can also be shaped like a hood as in a jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema spp.). The whole flowering structure is called a spadix. Note the double spathe in the orange and yellow calla in my bouquet.

Most members of the Araceae family contain oxalate crystals, which are irritants and may be toxic. Ironically the tubers and roots of some members of this family such as wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) have been extensively used as a basic food. It must be dried and cooked to break up the crystals. Taro was imported from India to feed the slaves and now it's one of Florida's most invasive weeds.

Other members of this widespread and well-known family include: athuriums (Anthurium andreanum), skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), dieffenbachia (Dieffenbachia picta), philodendrons (Philodendron spp..), split-leafed philodendron (Monstera deliciosa), Chinese evergreens (Aglaonema spp.),and caladiums (Caladium bicolor).

Native Rain lilies growing with blue-eyed grass in a roadside ditch. 
	Photo by Ginny Stibolt
Native Rain lilies growing with blue-eyed grass in a roadside ditch.

I've written about rain lilies before in my rain garden article, but I'm including them here, because I do enjoy them so.

This photo is of the native rain lily (Zephyranthes atamasca), but I have also bought some yellow rain lilies (Z. citrina), which are native to Mexico and some pink one (Z. grandiflora), which are native to Central America.

I love having rain lilies in my yard, because you never know exactly when you'll see them: they tend to sprout only after a good rain. Maybe this is why they are called fairy lilies or zephyr lilies. The rain lilies belong to the amaryllis family Amaryllidaceae and are closer to a true lily than the cannas or callas because they have the classic lily flower consisting of six tepals.

Hurricane lily in Ginny's yard. Photo by Ginny Stibolt
Hurricane lily in Ginny's yard.

Hurricane Lilies

Another gorgeous member of the amaryllis family, the hurricane lily (Lycoris radiata) shows up in the fall garden long after its leaves have died back. The flowers are borne on two-foot tall naked stems and after it blooms, the leaves sprout and last through the winter and into the spring. That makes it easier to plant new spring bulbs around these lilies since the leaves still show.

Don't you just love their extra long, curving anthers? Sometimes it's called a spider lily because those anthers evoke spider legs. These scarlet beauties sure do add spark to the tired fall landscape when many other flowers have passed their peak.

cultivated string lilies. 
		Photo by Ginny Stibolt
Cultivated string lily

String Lily

I have at least two types of these lilies and maybe a third, but it hasn't bloomed yet, so I don't know. The string lilies, often referred to as crinum lilies, are also members of the amaryllis family. The one in the photo is one of the hybrids (Crinum X powellii). I also have a native to South Africa that has bright red streaks down the center of each tepal (C. bulispermum). It's one of the two crinums used to to create the original Powell hybrid.

I'm hoping the one that has not bloomed as yet is the native (C. americanum), which is has white flowers with narrow tepals. It's also known as seven sisters lily or the swamp string lily.

Mexican native, tuberose. Photo by Ginny Stibolt
Mexican native, tuberose.


I love these bulbs: the fragrant Mexican single tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa). Members of the agave family, Agavaceae, they grow to almost three feet tall. They flower at night and that's when they are the most fragrant and their waxy white flowers seem to glow in the dusky light. The flowers stay open until morning, but then close up during the heat of the day.

They have been widely used in the perfume trade. An article in this week's NY Times, Making Flowers into Perfume, relates how you can do it yourself. Not my cup of tea, but nice to know.

I don't cry over my failed tulips

I walk quickly by the tulip bulb displays in the local stores and nurseries in the fall these days. I know better now and isn't that what gardening's about, learning and experimenting until you find what works best in your own yard? I have so many wonderful bulbs here to enjoy. After all, we live in the land of the flowers. Juan Ponce de Leon recognized that when he landed here in northeastern Florida in April 1513. He called this area "la Florida" in honor of Spain's Easter celebration "Pascua florida" (feast of the flowers). Indeed!

Ginny Stibolt moved to northeastern Florida in 2004 and even though she's a botanist and lifelong gardener, Florida gardening was a shock. She started writing The Adventures of a Transplanted Gardener columns for the Times Union newspaper in Jacksonville. This is one of those columns archived here on Floridata.com for your enjoyment. Now she's written three Florida garden books published by University Press of Florida: Sustainable Gardening for Florida, 2009; Organic Methods for Vegetable Gardening in Florida with Melissa Contreras, 2013, and The Art of Maintaining a Florida Native Landscape, 2015. Check out her blog for the latest news and articles: www.GreenGardeningMatters.com

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